For well over 50 years the Australian Institute of Professional Photography has been representing the profession of photography in Australia. While similar associations have shrunk the AIPP continues to grow. In recent times the Australian Video Producers Association, Professional Schools Photographers Association and the Australian Commercial + Media Photographers have all merged with the AIPP.
A History of Professional Photography in Australia by Paul Curtis.
AIPP is a membership organisation governed by its members who support one another through:
Peer review via awards
Helping each other in an increasingly isolated profession
Photo: David Simmonds
Business Development AIPP markets its members to photography buyers through recognition, accreditation, public relations, marketing and advertising.
Lobbying AIPP actively engages with federal, state and local government on behalf of the profession lobbying on:
Many More Benefits A long association with the photography industry AIPP has many sponsors and even more importantly, support from individuals and the leading brands. No, its not a discount club but members do receive vendor discounts, access to free magazines, legal advice, contracts, and other benefits.
Like any membership organisation to get the most out of it you need to participate, get involved, volunteer – and of course join AIPP.
Like many Corporate Photographers I use Adobe Photoshop Lightroom to manage my digital camera images. With images Lightroom can edit, convert, print, publish them and more. However video support is limited to managing those generated by still cameras and smartphones, and all modern cameras offer that. With video Lightroom only really offers video trimming and basic grading features. For professional video editing an application like Adobe Premiere Pro is required.
Apart from editing images Lightroom is also the centre of managing an image collection. You can (and should!) rate, keyword, tag, add metadata, move, delete and do all your digital asset management within Lightroom.
How do you manage videos not supported in Lightroom? Many higher end video cameras capture formats not recognised by Lightroom. What I do with video editing is package each project in a folder structure with all its assets (raw video, audio, music, images, documents, Adobe Premiere files, final edits, etc,). I then catalog the final edited master in Lightroom. That way I can search for and scrub videos even when they are offline. If and when I need to access the project and its assets I search for the final edited master in Lightroom, right-click and select ‘Show in Finder/Show in Windows Explorer’, which reveals the project files:
After you right-click & select ‘Show in Finder’ the video project files are revealed.
In an ideal world Lightroom would allow us to catalog any file type and use proxies for those it doesn’t support. If you require that level of digital asset management Phase One Media Pro is a better option.
Phase One Media Pro lets you catalog any file type.
As a corporate photographer with experience in Digital Asset Management clients sometimes ask me what I suggest for their business. Bynder Orbital is a new freemium Digital Asset Management (DAM) application launching soon. Think of it as Dropbox for DAM. Here’s a 60 second video explaining Bynder Orbital:
Bynder Orbit is a ‘Software as a Service’ (SaaS) storing your assets and the application over the internet. That means there is no need for users to install or maintain applications on their computers or devices.
Bynder Orbit Interface
Users will get 100GB free online storage to manage their assets and pricing for higher tiers are yet to be announced. 100GB amount of storage is enough for small businesses managing vector and bitmap images for graphics, JPEGs, etc. Storing large files such as video and camera raw (DNG) files will quickly eat into your free account limit. Orbit currently supports a wide range of file types outlined in their Knowledge Base. Add-ons like connecting to Adobe Creative Cloud, WordPress and more are available in the Bynder Marketplace.
Bynder Orbit isn’t just for business. The interface is simple and would suit novices including families wanting to privately share their images, videos and other content. The Bynder terms of service are far less daunting than social media corporations. Just don’t make it your only storage. Remember, Cloud Storage essentially means you’re storing your stuff on someone else’s computer. Like every storage service out there Bynder could disappear overnight. So have your assets stored locally on at least two other storage systems (hard drive and back up copy).
DAM for Dummies
Earlier this year Bynder offered a free digital copy of ‘DAM for Dummies’ (Bynder Edition). This 84 page book is a great introduction to the principles and terms used in DAM. Sign up for your free copy here.
Michael E. Gerber’s business book The E-Myth is now over 30 years old. Much if not all of it is still relevant for those who own businesses today.
Part of the book involves systemising and documenting your processes, as if you’re going to franchise your business. To write these manuals you need to have experience in all the roles. In photography that’s relatively simple.
Video Production has many roles that can scale from a single operator on a corporate video to a Hollywood production with a crew of hundreds. You’ve seen the credits at the end of films: producer, director, writer, camera, sound, gaffer, editor, etc,. As a small video and multimedia producer for corporate communications with a degree in film production I began as a production supervisor at a regional TV station. The advantage of these opportunities means I’ve gained professional experience in all the main roles.
This helps inform my decisions when quoting on making videos for businesses: what roles to do, delegate or eliminate if need be. And what to expect from those professionals I need to outsource to. The video community in Australia is small enough to know people who specialise in key roles, or know who ask when I need a recommendation. While not as unionised as the USA, the local film industry still has demarcation lines. Whether it’s in writing or not crew members know their role in the production.
Of course there is a lot more to Gerber’s book than documenting business roles. If you’re interested, in 1995 it was republished as The E-Myth Revisited as a book, ebook and audiobook.
Everyone has a cache of photos, slides and negatives tucked away somewhere. They might be your images, family photos from your parents, or a film archive from your company. They all hold great value whether personal, sentimental or a business asset. It can seem like a huge responsibility:
What are you going to do with them?
How will you do it?
How long will it take?
And how much is it going to cost?
Chances are you would like to have your photos in a digital form to more easily access, share and if it’s a business, monetise them. Last month I wrote about converting video tapes to digital. Converting, or digitising, ‘analog’ prints and film can seem even more daunting. Traditionally photos and film would be carefully scanned by experienced technicians, one at time. Scans would be individually tweaked and cleaned up then saved as a TIF file. There is a much easier, faster, more cost effective way!
Camera Scans Peter Krogh, commercial photographer and image collection management guru, coined the phrase Camera Scanning some 20 years ago. A digital camera is used to capture raw images of photos and film at high resolution.
Digitising set-ups Photo: Peter Krogh
Once the copy system is set up it’s a simple process to digitise and anyone with minimal training can do it. A huge advantage is expertise is only required at the backend, when the images are actually needed. Then they’re converted from camera raw format to TIF or JPEG. This saves you a lot of time and money. Traditional scanning puts the expertise at the capture stage, for every photo as it’s digitised. With decades of experience in scanning, slide duplication, photo copying, and digital asset management I’ve implemented the Camera Scanning system for at least three film archives and seen the results.
Digitising Photos with Your Camera – Step by Step A decade ago Peter Krogh wrote a Camera Scanning white paper as part of the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program for the US Library of Congress.
Digitizing Your Photos multimedia ebook Photo: Peter Krogh
This month he released Digitizing Your Photos with Your Camera and Lightroom, a comprehensive multimedia ebook complete with 94 instructional videos to guide you through the whole process. Written, illustrated and produced in typical Krogh style the new book goes into great detail on the whole procedure from strategy to publishing options (social media, website, printed book, etc,).
Digitizing Your Photos video instruction
Based on the real world experience of digitising his fathers photographic archive you will see Peter and his daughter Josie go through the entire workflow. Whether your goal is more modest or demanding, the system Peter demonstrates scales perfectly.
The Problem with B&W and Colour Negatives Copying slides has a long tradition and is made easier because we are making a digital copy of a positive image. Negative film, especially colour negs, create a digital negative that needs to be inverted in post production. Thankfully Peter has been lobbying Adobe to make the inversion from a camera raw file a painless process. Colour negatives have an orange mask that needs to be corrected and the book shows how easy it is in Adobe Lightroom or Adobe Camera Raw within Photoshop.
Crowd Sourcing Information Once digitised your photos won’t have any metadata to search on when you need to find the images. Here Peter shows how to include information included with the original photo or slide at capture time. Thinking laterally he also shows you how to crowd source more information from other people to add their knowledge via web galleries. This metadata will increase in value as time (and people) move on, creating a valuable personal or business asset.
The DAM Book lite As author of the best selling The DAM Book for Photographers Peter Krogh is the leading authority on the subject. Part of Digitizing Your Photos includes a chapter on managing your digital archive. It’s worth a ebooklet on its own. Coincidentally Peter is now hard at work updating The DAM Book and the third edition is expected later this year.
Video tape archive at Denmark’s DRs Heritage Project
Now is the time to start digitising all your video or audio tapes.
Why? The Australian National Film and Sound Archive made the year 2025 a hard deadline for transferring magnetic tape to digital. After 2025 many factors compound to make digitisation practically impossible:
Obsolesce – equipment to play tapes no longer made or repairable
Experience – people with the knowledge to operate equipment retired
Tape deterioration – tape has a limited life span
Supply and demand – costs increase as more businesses and consumers need tapes digitised
Procrastination – as businesses and consumers consider ROI the costs increase
Worse for business – due to larger scale
Should You Outsource? There are many services available worldwide who can digitise your video. My advice is to ask a friend or business similar to yours who they recommend. Some operators literally work out of their living room, while others ship tapes overseas.
Outsourcing is easier for the individual who is not technically minded and time poor. It does come at a price:
Higher costs – you get what you pay for, don’t skimp
Possible loss of tapes – while off site or in the mail
Quality may not be sufficient – test before digitising large quantities
Trust – who is the business doing the digitisation
Privacy – access to personal and business sensitive information
DIY Another option for large scale tape digitisation is to create a (temporary) digitisation department or do it yourself. The benefits are:
Control – over quality, costs and time
On site – security
Lower costs – do it in your own time or employ staff
No risk of loss – tapes don’t leave your premises
Of course there are costs if you DIY:
Time – it will take longer, depends on what your time is worth
Technical – there is a learning curve
Set up cost – if you don’t have all the equipment
That last point is evidenced by the escalating price of used video cameras and players. Obsolete 8mm video cameras now cost more than HD video cameras. That cost will only increase with demand as 2025 approaches.
What I Did Personally I went DIY because as a video professional I’m technically proficient and a control freak when it comes to quality, privacy and risk minimisation. I used my own video equipment and a simple program called LifeFlix (no affiliation) developed by the founder of professional video software company Red Giant.
Not The End Remember to have a solid back up strategy for the video and audio as you would with your born digital video and images. Eventually all that audio visual content will need to be migrated to new media and formats. However it will be far easier than digitising tape!
Once your video tapes are digitised you can breathe a sigh of relief. Businesses can more easily monetise their video and audio archive. Your personal videos can now be shared with family, friends and passed on to future generations.
If you know a good video tape transfer service please share it on Facebook or LinkedIn.
Ask three commercial photographers to quote on the same job and you could receive three different prices. Why is that?
Commercial Photography typically isn’t a la carte where you pick a package. Instead services are custom priced for your individual and unique requirements. This can be frustrating for clients looking to commission photography for their first time. But there is good news – read on!
Why a La Carte Can Be Wrong Having a menu of service options would make commissioning photography much easier. However it doesn’t allow for what you and your business needs. When a CPA is asked to manage your accounts costs will depend on your business structure (sole trader, partnership, company or LLC), turnover, whether you have employees and how much staff time is required.
Going off-menu when ordering a la carte will cost more. When ordering from a franchise pizzeria and asking for no olives it may cost you more to have less on the pizza.
A la carte photography would be like purchasing microstock, royalty-free images. Yes you know the flat fee but the image is by its very nature generic and not about your business. And your competitors can use the exact same image!
So How Is Commercial Photography Priced? Sticking with the stock photo analogy, photographers charge a usage fee for commercial photography, similar to licensing a rights-managed image. There is a vast difference in fees for the same image being used by the local hairdresser in their salon than a multinational company for an international advertising campaign. The value of the photo is far greater the wider it is used. Sally’s Hair Salon will pay less than Revlon. Again you risk a stock image being used by a competitor whereas commissioned photography is custom made for your business.
Commercial Photography licensing fees are based on:
Creative fee (10, 20 or more years experience and the creative execution)
Usage (where the image is used, for how long and in what area)
Pre & Post Production (organising the photo shoot and processing images)
Special equipment & Permits (studio or location hire, parking, etc,)
A photography quote will include these points along with an outline of the creative “treatment” which helps you compare different approaches to your request.
Copyright When commissioning a freelance photographer they own the copyright to images they create. Copyright has a commercial value, people wouldn’t be fighting over it in court if it didn’t. Some companies believe they need to own copyright when in fact they might be asking for control of the images. Copyright buyout is very expensive, typically 3 – 5 times the normal usage rate. Licensing usage will serve the same purpose at perhaps one fifth the cost. Note if images contain models their agreement might only be for 12 – 24 months, making a 2 year photography usage license more relevant and far more cost effective for your business.
Photography Brief Providing a brief to photographers when seeking quotes helps eliminate variances in photographers estimates. A brief can include:
Example images you like the look and feel of
The purpose of the images (what you want to achieve with the images)
List of images needed
Where they will be used (your website, billboard ads, PR)
Expected timing and dates for shoot
Your deadline for image delivery
The Good News Over time clients and photographers establish a business relationship where similar services are requested. For example, updating staff headshots on a regular basis. It’s known quantity so fees, service and the images can be consistent. As a client that makes your life much easier!
Chances are images that you make today won’t last as long as those made by your parents. That’s because our parents used technology that hadn’t changed much in 150 years. As recently as 15 years ago taking photos typically resulted in a handful of 4×6 inch “postcard” prints. They were put in a photo album or a shoe box and inherited by succeeding generations.
Now smartphones are the de facto family camera capturing digital images that are rarely if ever made into prints. Instead they end up on social media or remain dormant on smartphones never to be seen again.
Digital images are more fragile than prints. Due to their storage medium digital images can be easily deleted, lost, stolen and forgotten. Unlike a high quality print there is no file format that can be guaranteed to be viewable in 100 years. Images on your phone, social media account and in the cloud won’t be easy to access after you’ve gone.
Cameras including those in our smartphones capture photos as JPEG images. When images are created by professional photographers or keen amateurs they are captured in a proprietary camera raw format, later processed and converted on computers to JPEG or TIFF. Whilst raw camera formats are the highest quality they are even more fragile than JPEG due to their rarity and proprietary nature. That’s one reason when archiving images cultural institutions prefer prints or TIFFs over raw files.
Rascals, Stephen Dupont
Artists including documentary photographers are drawn to the idea of having their life’s work collected by cultural institutions. As outlined in an interview with the ABC (Australia) Sunday Arts program photographer Stephen Dupont is concerned that the message he creates as a journalist will disappear if left solely to fickleness of the news media. Dupont makes prints and photo books that are included in museum collections such as the New York Public Library.
In a PDN article Wilhelm Imaging Research suggest specific colour inkjet prints can last up to 200 years and 400 years for black and white. When a museum creates archival quality inkjet prints of historic paintings it’s likely that those prints will outlast some of the original artworks themselves.
The takeaway here is make it a habit to create prints of images that are important to you. Photographer and writer Derek Story suggests that every December make six archival images of the year. That way, if all else fails, at least you leave an easily accessible legacy of images for future generations.
When I began in commercial and corporate photography we photographed on transparency (slide) film. It was unforgiving with little latitude for error. Photographers seemed to perform magic, capturing an invisible image inside their camera, confident they had created what the client needed. There was no way of seeing if you had the shot until the film was processed, hours or days later. You knew your craft intuitively because you had to “get it right in camera”.
Often I have corporate photography clients tell me I must be confident because I don’t look at the LCD on the back of the camera. Actually it’s just a habit from the film days. On being photographed Actress Keira Knightley said in Interview Magazine:
“I’ve noticed that the people who started on film still have the ability to see the person in front of them. Whereas for a lot of photographers who have only ever worked in digital, the relationship between the photographer and the person who they’re taking a picture of sort of doesn’t exist anymore. They’re looking at a computer screen as opposed to the person.”
Strength of Digital
Today professional photography is captured digitally. While I loved film I could never go back to it commercially over digital. Film is sometimes used as a selling point for retail photography as a point of difference. In terms of sheer quality, turnaround and cost, digital surpassed film over a decade ago.
Digital also offers opportunities impossible with film such as Computational Photography. Using more than one camera, lens or image along with with clever software allows photographers to create images beyond the capabilities of traditional photography. Combining multiple images allows me to create photographs that closely match what the human eye and brain see (or better if so desired).
Computational photography allows me to create commercial images beyond traditional methods.
Much has been made of the Apple iPhone 7 Plus dual lens system. Apple combines images from both lenses to simulate the look of an expensive portrait lens with the background out of focus. The Light L16 camera goes several steps further and will create images that can even be refocussed later.
The Light L16 Camera creates images that can be refocussed later. (Image courtesy of Light.co)
A great example of computational photography the Light camera captures 52 megapixel high resolution images, has a high dynamic range, superior low light abilities, and a wide optical zoom range in a tiny form factor. Creative decisions can be made and more importantly changed later in comfort during post-production. It sounds like science fiction and that is precisely how computational photography should be!
“View from the Window at Le Gras” by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
This year marks 190 years since the first photograph was created by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. It has since taught photographers to pay attention to the subject not their camera. We have developed a unique visual language around film and what looks “natural” based on its limitations. Digital photography is relatively young and computational photography is still in its infancy. Knowing what can realistically be achieved in post-production lets me decide the best way to capture a scenario for a client in a pre-production meeting. I can judge whether it’s more efficient to balance an extreme tonal range at time of capture or in post. In the hands of a qualified photographer advanced digital technology can offer photography clients a better experience, higher quality and more flexibility.
Image Management – are we back to the old days? In the early noughties post-production for digital photography would require three distinct pieces of software:
1. Image browser 2. Raw converter 3. Image cataloguer
Each application had it’s purpose.
1. Image Browser
Image Browser: Photo Mechanic
Downloading and creating a back up of images from the camera memory card is the most critical stage of a digital workflow. After downloading images they are assessed and marked for later processing. The benchmark was and still is Photo Mechanic by Camera Bits.
2. Raw Converter
Raw Converter: Capture One
Once the best images from a shoot were selected they are brought into a raw processing program. Here the proprietary camera raw files are adjusted for colour, tone and sharpness then converted to JPEG or TIFF for delivery to the client. Adobe Camera Raw (Photoshop) and Capture One by Phase One are the market leaders. Twelve years ago these applications didn’t catalog your images or adjustments.
3. Image Catalog
Image Catalog: iView MediaPro
An important part of image collection management is tracking the archive. A dedicated Digital Asset Management (DAM) application that creates a searchable catalog. Photographers adopted established DAM programs including iView MediaPro (now Phase One Media Pro) and Extensis Portfolio. These applications were designed to catalog all types of media not just images. Eagle-eyed readers will see the interface looks almost identical to the image browser – except it’s displaying a catalog not the actual images.
All-in-one: Apple Aperture
In 2005 Apple released Aperture: an all-in-one program that did all of the above. Here was a program dedicated to photographers who could now download, browse, convert raw files, and catalog their images within one visually appealing application. In typical Apple style they disrupted the market that had competitors rushing to emulate Aperture. Eventually Adobe released Lightroom and Phase One updated Capture One to include a catalog option.
Today At the end of 2016 several programs have been released that move away from the all-in-one program popularised by (now defunct) Apple Aperture. Applications like ON1 Photo RAW and Macphun Luminar claim to fame is that not being tied to a catalog creates a faster user experience. If you want to catalog with these apps then look for a separate, dedicated DAM application like Media Pro. If you want the speed of downloading and viewing images you should add an image browser such as Photo Mechanic the list. So that means you’ll need:
1. Image browser 2. Raw converter 3. Image cataloguer
Deja vu? Maybe in 2017 Apple will release another program to disrupt this space… not likely, they abandoned the pro market and now have Apple Photos. I’ll stick with Lightroom.